Makarenko (1888 -1939)
Anton Semyonovich Makarenko, was a Ukrainian pedagogue who during the Soviet period developed various works with abandoned and living children of crime in the early Soviet years. It was the first step to develop and apply the idea of integrated design.
His thinking is influenced by the communist ideas of Lenine and Máximo Gorki, who argued for the importance of integrating practical knowledge of everyday life. He gave importance to mother tongues and developed a pedagogical practice based on an integrated alternative curriculum. One of the essential components of the integrated curriculum is the strong presence of culture in the school.
In his pedagogical practice Makrenko developed a model of practice based on collective and self-management. The regulation of group life within the collective.
According to Makarenko’s pedagogy the young man should be included in a group life, creating a strong discipline and sense of responsibility.
In his work “The Pedagogical Poem” he describes the principles of his educational proposal: strictness and affection in the relationship, organization of group activities, discussion groups. and study visits The young person should have direct contact with reality and participate in the main decisions of school life.
At the colony school, a Gorki school experience the children were divided into groups of ten by age. They elected a class representative who participated in school assemblies, where they discussed everyday issues. The colony school project advocated a participatory, democratic, discipline-based process, including the possibility of the school also educating parents. Makrenko defended the intense activity of parental participation in the cultural life of the school. Even the school should guide parents in their educational activity.
The educational activity was planned according to objectives. Discipline was not seen as an end in itself, but as a process for all to achieve their goals.