Nadejda Krupskaia – The literacy of the socialist being
Nadejda Konstantinovna Krupskaia, in Russian Наде́жда Константи́новна Кру́пская (1869 – 1939), the revolutionary Bolshevik creator of Soviet revolutionary pedagogy. She was married to Lenin and after the Russian Revolution of 1917, participates in the revolutionary governments and plays a prominent role of the government and played an important role in the fight against illiteracy in Russia.
His conception of education and literacy was instrumental in creating the new pedagogical method and implementing public libraries in Soviet Russia.
Influenced by Tolstoy’s reading, Krupskaia taught evening classes, which led her into the revolutionary circles of St. Petersburg, participating in the various revolutionary actions. Arrested and deported to Siberia, she knows exile in several European countries alongside Lenin.
Following the victory of the Bolsheviks in 1917, he joined the People’s Commissariat of Public Instruction, where he collaborated with Anatoli Lunatcharski to lay the foundations for a new educational system, advocating the destruction of the bourgeois school, the creation of a new school that would meet the demands of socialism, proposing free, centralized universal education, continuing between the different degrees.
The first step of this work, however, was to combat illiteracy, a campaign that led, from 1919 onwards, the Extraordinary Commission on the Elimination of Illiteracy, in charge of coordinating the efforts of all Russian literacy organizations. Young students, teachers, and intellectuals joined in a national effort whose motto was, “Let him who can read and write teach to him that he cannot.” Between 1920 and 1940, about 60 million adults were literate, while almost all young people were educated.
Having won the first step in adult education, much remained to be done. “We can’t be content with just teaching students to read, write and count,” Krupskaia said. “They must know the basic scientific elements without which they will not be able to lead a conscious life.” Thus, he advocated the study of the natural sciences – aimed at allowing a materialistic understanding of natural phenomena and the rational use of the forces of nature – and the social sciences – to understand class relations and forms of social development.
It thus defended a generalist teaching, oriented towards a scientific conception of the world. His ideas about polytechnic education – linking theory to practice, school to life – about professional initiation, self-management at school, the close connection between family and community, as well as his critical analysis of traditional pedagogy from both Russia as in other countries, they are still recognized as a fundamental contribution to the development of pedagogy in the USSR.