Maria Montessori (1870 – 1952)
Maria Montessori, a physician (was the first woman to graduate in medicine in Italy) developed a teaching method known as the Montessori Method.
After her training, she was assigned to work with children in the psychiatric ward of the hospital, where she begins her observations on children with special needs. Observation about children’s activities and concern for abandoned children led her to develop her educational method and to create the “Casa dei Bambini” (1909) where she worked with adult “guides” responsible for accompanying children. school activities.
Activist for peace and women’s rights, the method that builds on the premise that all human beings are born with potential. It is up to adults to help children develop their potential. He calls this potential the “secret of the child.” The adult should follow this secret, based on the principles of order, freedom of movement, on the basis of mother tongue, in an appropriate environment. Everyone’s freedom must be limited by the rules of discipline. The disciplines that the child must have access to should allow him / her to develop social relations, develop their capacities through observation, music and the arts. Its method involves reconciling the principle of freedom with responsibility.
Learning activities should take place in appropriate spaces and through appropriate teaching materials that allow problem solving. For the project methodology, we highlight Montessori’s contribution to problem solving practice.