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O que é e para que serve o Património? (I)

O que e para que serve o património é uma questão relevante para os estudos culturais e para a Dignidade Humana

Ao olharmos para as nossas cidades contemporâneas, para além de serem um lugar de concentração urbana e densificação das relações sociais, são hoje espaços de criação e inovação social. Não só n 

modernaA vitalidade cultural de Berlim, nos últimos anos, desde a arquitetura e urbanização à presença da nova geração de artistas plásticos e cultores das diversas artes foi o melhor cenário para este extraordinário encontro. Ao caminharmos em “Unter den Linden”, entre tílias, em direção à Porta de Brandeburgo e ao novo Bundestag pudemos lembrar as gravuras antigas e as grandes referências da cultura alemã: os Museus, a Biblioteca, e a sombra de grandes espíritos, como Fichte e Humboldt.

Que é o património cultura senão essa lembrança viva? O “Apelo de Berlim para a Ação” constitui um importante desafio para governos, instituições da sociedade civil e cidadãos, organizações internacionais e supranacionais, no sentido de considerar o património cultural como fator de superação do vazio de valores éticos, da indiferença, do medo dos outros – no sentido de uma “cultura de paz”, suscetível de pôr a tónica num culto comum da herança e da memória, do respeito mútuo e de uma verdadeira partilha de responsabilidades.

Valores, culturas e memórias constituem a base de uma Europa que deve caracterizar-se pela “Unidade na Diversidade”, resistindo à fragmentação dos egoísmos e da intolerância. Fora da lógica das identidades fechadas, devemos construir realidades abertas e complexas, que não excluam ninguém. A pertença a uma comunidade local e o reconhecimento da importância da proximidade não podem ser contraditórios com a ideia de uma pertença múltipla e de uma solidariedade europeia e global.

O património cultural liga gerações, suscita complementaridades, cruza influências e assenta na evolução histórica de encontros e desencontros – abrindo caminhos de diálogo e de cooperação entre comunidades na Europa, mas também com outras culturas do mundo.

Trata-se de uma ponte entre o passado e o futuro, um processo contínuo de criatividade e inovação, que assenta as suas raízes na evolução histórica e suplanta-a em nome de uma cultura viva e de uma cidadania ativa e responsável.

Mas, falar do tema, é referir ainda o desenvolvimento sustentável, uma sólida coesão social e o surgimento, direta e indiretamente, de condições para novas possibilidades de trabalho.

O património cultural traz harmonia e beleza para o nosso meio ambiente, humano e natural, mas também permite desenvolver o bem-estar e a qualidade de vida. Neste Ano Europeu, quando celebramos os 70 anos da Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos, estamos em condições para ir além de meras declarações de princípios.

E importa seguir destes para a ação, tornando os valores culturais como sentidos por todos – certos de que, deste modo, poderemos, a um tempo, respeitar as pertenças locais, regionais ou nacionais, compreendendo que estas só serão preservadas se não esquecermos as diferenças e a relação com os outos.

E não se pense que é fácil este compromisso. Muitos pensam que fechando-se se protegem melhor, quando a história nos dá eloquentes exemplos que demonstram que cultura fechada é cultura ameaçada e morta. O valor universal da dignidade da pessoa humana defende-se com unidade e diversidade.

A prevalência da hostilidade sobre a hospitalidade gera consequências dramáticas, que levam a conflitos desregulados, guerras sangrentas e à trágica espiral da violência. O desenvolvimento humano exige equilíbrio entre identidade e diferença, tradição e modernidade, liberdade e igualdade… Eis por que razão o Apelo de Berlim tem de ser considerado na sua dimensão política e democrática.

UM PLANO DE AÇÃO EUROPEU

De que falamos? De desenvolver o Plano de Ação Europeu para o Património Cultural; de reconhecer o Património como uma prioridade no âmbito das políticas europeias; de criar pontes entre as dimensões local, nacional e europeia; de preservar e transmitir o que é insubstituível; de investir na regeneração do Património com qualidade; de promover o melhor conhecimento, a compreensão aprofundada e de aproveitar a oportunidade que o momento atual nos reserva. Cada um destes pontos corresponde a uma responsabilidade concreta, que supera em muito a marginalidade de um tema secundário.

É a sociedade no seu todo e o desenvolvimento humano que estão em causa. Só um ambicioso Plano de Ação Europeu pode obter resultados efetivos. A Nova Agenda Europeia para a Cultura não pode ficar nas boas intenções nem ser confundida com uma cornucópia de meios usados sem critério nem avaliação. Importa envolver promotores e beneficiários, do espaço público e da sociedade civil – articulando o investimento na cultura, educação e ciência com os objetivos de coesão social e de desenvolvimento regional, envolvendo cidades, campos, litoral, meio ambiente, turismo, sustentabilidade, mudança climática, investigação e inovação, política digital, educação, objetivos de qualidade e, naturalmente, juventude.

Estamos a referir a obrigação de maior relevância da Europa e de coerência com a Convenção de Faro do Conselho da Europa, com a Estratégia Europeia para o Património no Século XXI e com a Agenda das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável.

Deste modo, as instituições europeias deverão reconhecer o património cultural como prioridade estratégica, com expressão no quadro financeiro plurianual (2021-2027).

Isto contribuirá para o mais do que urgente investimento europeu para o capital humano e cultural e para a promoção dos valores europeus. Daí a importância da eleição do novo Parlamento Europeu em 2019 e da Comissão, para que haja compromissos concretos.

Os diferentes níveis de governação têm de se coordenar para que o património cultural funcione como um verdadeiro recurso para a sociedade, economia, cultura e meio ambiente. O âmbito local, regional, nacional e europeu tem de definir planos articulados e coerentes, para serem eficientes, do mesmo modo que devem envolver organizações internacionais e sociedade civil.

Não podemos esquecer ainda que o património cultural é único e insubstituível, vulnerável e sujeito a riscos – daí a necessidade de criar sinergias no tocante à investigação, à criação artística, às novas tecnologias, ao investimento económico, no sentido da preservação, salvaguarda e a um melhor conhecimento.

Também a regeneração das cidades, arredores e meios rurais obriga à criatividade, inovação e adaptação, com critérios de elevada qualidade, de acordo com a Declaração de Davos. Ainda a ligação com as escolas e a educação, com a formação e mobilização de novos públicos, a começar nas crianças e jovens, revela-se de importância crucial, até para facilitar uma melhor compreensão, respeito e inclusão de novos habitantes na Europa.

Ora, se tem sido possível concentrar esforços neste Ano Europeu, importa aproveitar o movimento para encontrar uma fórmula de ação adequada no sentido da criação de uma plataforma futura permanente para o melhor conhecimento e coordenação de ações na defesa do património cultural na Europa.

THE BERLIN CALL TO ACTION CULTURAL HERITAGE FOR THE FUTURE OF EUROPE[1]

PREAMBLE

The 2018 European Year of Cultural Heritage[2] marks a turning point for Europe’s ever-growing movement for cultural heritage. We must build on this momentum to recognize and unfold the positive and cohesivepower of our shared cultural heritage and values to connect Europe’s citizens and communities and to give a deeper meaning to the entire European project. The time for action is now.

This “Berlin Call to Action” is presented at the European Cultural Heritage Summit[3] on 22 June 2018 in Berlin by the 3 co-hosting organisations, namely EUROPA NOSTRA – the Voice of Cultural Heritage in Europe; the German Cultural Heritage Committee (DNK) acting as national coordinator of the European Year of Cultural Heritage in Germany and the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation (SPK) based in Berlin.

In the framework of the European Year of Cultural Heritage (EYCH), the first European Cultural Heritage Summit held from 18-24 June 2018 in Berlin brought together numerous citizens and organisationsfrom across Europe. Among them were representatives of institutions, associations, foundations and universities as well as of religious communities and sites, all dealing with cultural heritage; architects, museum professionals, conservators-restorers, craftsmen, artists, private owners of historic houses and heritage sites, researchers and teachers; representatives of public authorities or financial institutions; entrepreneurs, start-ups, (art)historians, journalists, photographers, students and young volunteers; together with Ministers of Culture, Mayors of historic cities, members of European, national and regional parliaments, representatives of European Union institutions, as well as of the Council of Europe, UNESCO and ICCROM and many European heritage networks.

This “Berlin Call to Action” draws its inspiration and legitimacy from the expertise, enthusiasm and engagement of all those women and men who care for cultural heritage (tangible, intangible and digital) and who dedicate their expertise, time and energy, as professionals or volunteers, to ensure the transmission of this heritage to future generations. The economic value of their work is significant; its social and cultural value is priceless.

The “Berlin Call to Action” also builds on the input and support of the EYCH national coordinators, members of the EYCH Stakeholders Committee, as well as of members of the European Heritage Alliance 3.3.

We now invite all those who care for Europe’s past, present and future to sign, support and widely share this Berlin Call to Action.

THE BERLIN CALL TO ACTION

WE, THE UNDERSIGNED CITIZENS, ORGANISATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS… stand ready to take up our shared responsibility to unfold the cohesive power and potential of our shared cultural heritage to advance a more peaceful, prosperous, inclusive and just Europe.

Today, in this European Year of Cultural Heritage, we have a unique opportunity to influence the debate on the Future of Europe. Confronted with so many challenges, and even threats, to core European values, this debate cannot be based exclusively on political, economic or security considerations. We must “change the tone” of the narrative about Europe. We must put our shared cultural heritage where it belongs: at the very centre of Europe’s policies and priorities.

WHY? BECAUSE…

1. Our cultural heritage is what makes us European as it reflects our varying and shared values, cultures and memories. Therefore, it is the true embodiment of Europe’s “Unity in Diversity” and it helps us resist divisive forces which are a danger to our society.

2. Our cultural heritage captures the multiple layers of our identity – local, regional, national, and European; these layers are all interconnected and reinforce each other and they are continuously evolving;

3. Our cultural heritage feeds both our sense of belonging to a local community and the sense of togetherness and solidarity in Europe;

4. Our cultural heritage connects generations as it reflects cross-fertilisations and cross-border movements of people and ideas over many centuries of shared history. As such, it is the basis for a respectful and enriching dialogue and interaction within and between communities in Europe but also with other cultures of the world;

5. Our cultural heritage ensures a bridge between our past and our future. It allows us to draw from, and build on, our cultural traditions and history, while it also helps us to heal wounds and mend the fractures of the past. It simultaneously inspires on-going creativity and innovation. As such, it is a source of continuous learning and inspiration and a basis for active and responsible citizenship;

6. Our cultural heritage is also a key driver for sustainable development and enhanced social cohesion, as well as the source of a large number of rewarding jobs both directly and indirectly;

7. Our cultural heritage brings harmony and beauty to our living environment, both man-made and natural, and thus improves our wellbeing and quality of life.

While restating – in this year which marks the 70th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights – that the right to cultural heritage is a basic human right and while reaffirming – in this European Year of Cultural Heritage – our commitment to the principles formulated in a large number of relevant policy documents[4] already adopted by many European and international organisations, it is now time to translate these principles into effective action with tangible results for Europe and its citizens:

ACTION 1 DEVELOPING THE EUROPEAN ACTION PLAN FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE

We call for an ambitious European Action Plan for Cultural Heritage as a lasting legacy of the European Year of Cultural Heritage. This Action Plan which is already announced in the recently adopted New European Agenda for Culture, must be prepared and implemented with full involvement and engagement of all relevant public and private stakeholders, including civil society. It must also be holistic and interconnected with other key EU policy agendas and priorities, fully in line with the recent conclusions of the EU Council. We refer to objectives and policy areas such as social cohesion, regional development, urban development, rural development, environment, maritime and tourism policies, sustainability agenda and climate change adaptation, research and innovation, digital policy, education and skills and, of course, the youth. This Action Plan should furthermore also have a strong external dimension since the European Union must also take global responsibility and reach out to partners across and beyond the borders of the EU. The Action Plan should therefore be coherent with the Council of Europe’s Faro Convention on the Value of Cultural Heritage for Society and its recent European Heritage Strategy for the 21st century, and with the UN Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development.

ACTION 2 RECOGNISING HERITAGE AS A PRIORITY FOR EUROPEAN POLICIES AND FUNDING

In support of the future European Action Plan for Cultural Heritage, we call on the EU institutions to fully recognize cultural heritage as a strategic priority in the up-coming policy programmes and the EU’s new multi-annual financial framework (2021-2027). This will contribute to the much-needed investment in Europe’s human and cultural capital and in promoting Europe’s values. At the same time, we all commit to continue raising the awareness of the multiple values and benefits of cultural heritage for Europe. This is particularly important in view of the upcoming European Parliament elections in May 2019, and the subsequent appointment of the new European Commission.

ACTION 3 BRIDGING LOCAL, NATIONAL AND EUROPEAN

The various levels of governance are key to unleashing the full potential of cultural heritage as a strategic resource for society, economy, culture and the environment. Therefore, we call on all States, Regions and Cities in Europe to continue to develop holistic and ambitious policy and action plans for cultural heritage. We also urge them to enhance their dialogue and cooperation with relevant European and international organisations as well as with civil society. Thus ensuring that the policy and action plans adopted by various levels of governance – from local, national to European – complement each other and are coherent.

ACTION 4 PRESERVING AND TRANSMITTING THE IRREPLACEABLE

Cultural heritage is unique and irreplaceable. Yet it is often vulnerable and even endangered. Therefore, it is our collective task to preserve this treasure so as to transmit it for further enjoyment and (re)use to future generations. We must boost the necessary human and financial resources and invest in skills and capacity building in order to ensure proper preservation, development and transmission of our heritage, both physically and digitally. In this process we must fully involve universities and the research community, develop innovative business models and stimulate creative synergies between heritage and the arts. We should also recognize the value of intangible expressions of our heritage which are constantly evolving and enriching our society and living environment.

ACTION 5 INVESTING IN QUALITY HERITAGE-LED REGENERATION

We must ensure and enable adequate investments, public and private, into quality heritage-led regeneration of our neighbourhoods, cities and countryside based on creativity, innovation and adaptive re-use; inspired by the principles of high-quality “Baukultur” as formulated in the Davos Declaration adopted at the very beginning of the European Year of Cultural Heritage; and enriched by the active participation of citizens and their communities and civil society organisations. In this context, we welcome creative and respectful interaction between the protection of the built heritage and contemporary contributions to our built environment, which contribute to the heritage of tomorrow.

ACTION 6 PROMOTING BETTER KNOWLEDGE AND DEEPER UNDERSTANDING

Cultural heritage must be given a much bigger importance in education activities – both formal and informal – for all ages. This will stimulate stronger public engagement for the safeguard and transmission of our cultural heritage. Special attention must be given to history education and heritage interpretation placed in a broader context of Europe’s past, present and future. This will equip Europe’s citizens and especially our children and the youth, with the necessary tools for gaining a deeper understanding of the on-going encounters and exchanges within Europe as well as between Europe and other cultures of the world. All of these activities will help build more respectful and meaningful relationships between people and the places where they live, work or visit. This will also facilitate a better understanding, respect and inclusion of new inhabitants in Europe.

ACTION 7 BUILDING ON THE MOMENTUM

The European Year of Cultural Heritage has strengthened the policy momentum and wide mobilisation for cultural heritage in Europe. We must now consolidate and further improve the synergies between the widest possible range of public and private stakeholders including relevant European and international organisations and civil society. To achieve this, we need to find an adequate formula for a more permanent platform for gathering knowledge, capacity building and coordinating advocacy for cultural heritage in Europe

Berlin, 22 June 2018

REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

The list is non-exhaustive and will be updated in the next days.

European Union

  • COUNCIL CONCLUSIONS ON BRINGING CULTURAL HERITAGE TO THE FORE ACROSS POLICIES IN THE EU (23 MAY 2018)[5]
  • COMMUNICATION BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION “A NEW EUROPEAN AGENDA FOR CULTURE”(22 MAY 2018)[6]
  • ADOPTED OPINION BY THE EUROPEAN COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS “CULTURAL HERITAGE AS A STRATEGIC RESOURCE FOR MORE COHESIVE AND SUSTAINABLE REGIONS IN THE EU” (17 MAY 2018)
  • ADOPTED OPINION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS ON “STRENGTHENING EUROPEAN IDENTITY THROUGH EDUCATION AND CULTURE” (17 MAY 2018)
  • EUROPEAN COUNCIL CONCLUSIONS (14 DECEMBER 2017)[7]
  • COMMUNICATION “STRENGTHENING EUROPEAN IDENTITY THROUGH EDUCATION AND CULTURE. THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION’S CONTRIBUTION TO THE LEADERS’ MEETING IN GOTHENBURG, 17 NOVEMBER 2017” (14 NOVEMBER 2017)[8]
  • JOINT COMMUNICATION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL – TOWARDS AN EU STRATEGY FOR INTERNATIONAL CULTURAL RELATIONS (JUNE 2016)

Council of Europe

  • “EUROPEAN CULTURAL HERITAGE STRATEGY FOR THE 21ST CENTURY” RECOMMENDATION BY THE COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS OF THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE (22 FEBRUARY 2017)[9] [10]
  • “CONVENTION ON THE VALUE OF CULTURAL HERITAGE FOR SOCIETY (FARO CONVENTION)” ADOPTED BY THE COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS OF THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE (13 OCTOBER 2005)[11]

Further Documents

  • DAVOS DECLARATION 2018 – TOWARDS A HIGH-QUALITY BAUKULTUR FOR EUROPE (22 JANUARY 2018)[12] [13]
  • “UN AGENDA 2030 FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT” ADOPTED AT THE UNITED NATIONS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUMMIT (25 SEPTEMBER 2015)[14]

[1] http://www.europanostra.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Berlin-Call-Action-Cultural-Heritage-Future-Europe.pdf

[2] http://europa.eu/cultural-heritage/

[3] http://european-cultural-heritage-summit.eu/

[4] http://european-cultural-heritage-summit.eu/berlin-call-to-action/reference-documents/

[5] ata.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-8544-2018-INIT/en/pdf

[6] ttps://ec.europa.eu/culture/sites/culture/files/commission_communication_-_a_new_european_agenda_for_culture_2018.pdf

[7] http://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/32204/14-final-conclusions-rev1-en.pdf

[8] https://cor.europa.eu/EN/our-work/Pages/OpinionTimeline.aspx?opId=CDR-6048-2017

[9] http://www.coe.int/en/web/culture-and-heritage/strategy-21

[10] https://rm.coe.int/16806f6a03

[11] ttps://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=JOIN%3A2016%3A29%3AFIN

[12] https://davosdeclaration2018.ch/programme/

[13] https://davosdeclaration2018.ch/media/Declaraci%C3%B3n_de_Davos_2018-def.-es.pdf

[14] https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld

Por Pedro Pereira Leite

Dinamizador do Museu Educação Global e Diversidade Cultural
Museu Afro Digital - Portugal.

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